Many causes contributed to the revolt of 1781. Some were long-standing, related to the viceroyalty in New Granada in 1717. The slow response led to dissatisfaction and uncertainty in the city. Germania revolt took place in. , Charles had already stressed the treasury to its limit with his extravagant Flemish court, and over 1 million florins were spent in bribes for the election. The Revolt of th Comuneros This was the name given to the uprising of a group of people under the orders of the Spanish people, which began in the department of Socorro in Santander. The rebel movement took on a radical anti-feudal dimension, supporting peasant rebellions against the landed nobility. , The growing success of the comuneros emboldened people to accuse members of the old government of complicity with royal abuses.  The only invited cities that failed to attend were the four Andalusian cities: Seville, Granada, Cordova, and Jaén. He delayed his decision until the early hours of April 23, losing considerable time and allowing the royalists to unite their forces in Peñaflor. With these new recruits and the arrival of Juan de Padilla to Valladolid, the rebel military apparatus was rebuilt and morale bolstered. Soon many patriotic nobles decided to join them. Outnumbered, the town nevertheless resisted for four days, thanks to its walls. The first great revolt of comuneros in Spain was the uprising (1520–21) of the comunidades (autonomous cities) of Castile against the measures of Emperor Charles V . He traveled south, declaring his impending claim on the archdiocese to every village as he passed.  The revolt was in reaction to the increase in taxation to raise funds for defense of the region against the British, a rise in the price of tobacco and brandy, which were part of the late eighteenth-century Bourbon reforms. These economic and social reforms increased the limitations for colonists to produce crops and changed their economy. , Undaunted, Acuña continued into Toledo. On April 23, 1976, a small ceremony was held clandestinely in Villalar; only two years later, in 1978, the event had become a huge demonstration of 200,000 in support of Castilian autonomy.  The autonomous community of Castile and León was created in response to public demand in 1983, and it recognized April 23 as an official holiday in 1986. With the end of Franco's dictatorship and the establishment of the autonomous community of Castile and León, positive commemoration of the Comunidades has grown. Soon, a series of anti-government riots broke out in the cities, and local city councils (Comunidades) took power. Valenica. In February, Toledo kicked their Corregidor Real (something like a general manager) out and became an independent community. The Junta sent Padilla to meet Acuña; their combined force besieged the royal army at the castle of Mormojón.  Ferdinand and Isabella had been forced to borrow money to pay troops during and after the Reconquista, and Spanish military obligations had only increased since then.  Prior to the 1781 revolt, residents in New Granada had protested, at times violently, crown policy implementation there between 1740 and 1779. However, these new developments lead to a dramatic drop in support for the comuneros from aristocrats, who were frightened by the more radical elements of the revolution.. , However, with Isabella I's death and Joanna's accession in 1504, this alliance between the national government and the budding middle class faltered. , In April 1520, Toledo was already unstable. 36 (3): 415–416. It is disputed whether he was seeking to join the French and continue fighting, or was simply fleeing. Embarrassingly large numbers of important people had supported the comuneros, or at least were suspiciously slow to declare allegiance to the king, and Charles thought it unwise to press the issue too much. The cities responded by sending their militias, captained by Juan López de Padilla and Juan de Zapata, who won in the first major confrontation between the forces of the king and the rebels. April 23 is now celebrated as Castile and León Day, and the incident is often referred to in Castilian nationalism.  Maravall, who views the revolt as one of the first modern revolutions, especially stresses the ideological conflict and intellectual nature of the revolt, with features such as the first proposed written constitution of Castile. , At this point, most of the members of the Cortes in Santiago intended to vote against the king's requested duties and taxes, even with the Cortes stacked with royalists. Bishop Acuña, captured in Navarre, was stripped of his ecclesiastical standing and executed after he killed a guard while trying to escape. " The rebels unified under the leadership of Juan Francisco Berbeo, a Criollo elite. This unstable situation came to an end on February 3, 1522, when the generous terms of the surrender were annulled.  The initial revolt was local and not well known outside the region of Socorro, but in the late nineteenth century, historian Manuel Briceño saw the massive revolt as a precursor to independence. , However, one ray of hope remained for the rebels. The Revolt of the Comuneros was a popular uprising in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (now Colombia and parts of Venezuela) against the Spanish authorities from March through October 1781. Only Madrid and Toledo kept their Comunidades alive. Hamnett, Brian R. (1980).  A letter from Cardinal Adrian on August 25 warned Charles of the severity of the situation: Your Highness is making a great error if you think that you will be able to collect and make use of this tax; there is no one in the Kingdom, not in Seville or Valladolid or any other city who will ever pay anything of it; all the grandees and members of the council are amazed that Your Highness has scheduled payments from these funds. In a review of John Leddy Phelan's book on the Comunero revolt, Hamnett states that the revolt was started, not with the goal of an independence movement, political freedom and self-government, but only with the hope of reversing the reforms. , Emperor Charles V would go on to rule one of the largest and most sprawling empires in European history. On March 16, 1781, in Socorro in northeastern Colombia, grocer Manuela Beltrán tore down posted edicts about new tax increases and other changes that would have reduced the profits of the colonists and enlarged the benefits of Spain. The celebration highlights the roles of Juan López de Padilla and María Pacheco, and is done in memory of the rebellion in 1522, the last event of the war. In Dueñas, the Count of Buendía's vassals revolted against him on September 1, 1520, encouraged by rebel monks. Juan López de Padilla considered withdrawing to Toro to seek reinforcements in early April, but wavered. , Other cities now followed the lead of Toledo and Segovia, deposing their governments. Much of the town was destroyed, including a Franciscan monastery and a trade warehouse containing goods valued at more than 400,000 ducats. The Spanish government sought to eliminate tax evasion to reduce benefits of the colonies and created new laws and taxes to establish greater support and a larger revenue for the home country. , The comunero army now properly organized itself, integrating the militias of Toledo, Madrid, and Segovia. As the growth of the population and economy of the New World began to outgrow that of Spain, Spain began to look for ways to make the colonies more profitable. The people of Segovia, led by militia leader and noble Juan Bravo, rallied around the Comunidad. The Marquis eventually abandoned the negotiations, and María Pacheco took on personal negotiations with Prior Zúñiga, the commander of the besieging forces. Ni un paso atrás, siempre adelante, y lo que fuere menester … sea!-Jose Antonio Galan. As a consequence, Charles was nearly constantly at war, fighting France, England, the Papal States, the Ottoman Turks, the Aztecs, the Incas, and the Protestant Schmalkaldic League during his reign. Isabella's daughter Joanna succeeded to the throne. Due to Joanna's mental instability, Castile was ruled by the nobles and her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a regent. Murcia stayed with the rebel cause, but did not coordinate much with the Junta, and the rebellion there had a character closer to the nearby Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Valencia in Aragon. Comuneros revolt took place in. , William de Croÿ, the young Flemish Archbishop of Toledo appointed by Charles, died in January 1521 in Worms, Germany. However, Charles understood that noble encroachment of power had helped cause the revolt, and embarked upon a new reform program. Zúñiga drove the rebel forces off, and then launched a counterattack of his own between Lillo and El Romeral, inflicting a crushing defeat on Acuña. On April 23, 1521, after nearly a year of rebellion, the reorganized supporters of the emperor struck a crippling blow to the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar. With the coming of the summer in Spain, Adrian had resorted to violence t… , The Royal Council's next move was the occupation of Ampudia in Palencia, a town loyal to the Count of Salvatierra. The wavering position of Burgos was soon known to the royalists, and the Constable of Castile negotiated with Burgos's government. On April 21, the remaining administrators were driven from the fortifications of the Alcázar of Toledo. Another factor considered by scholars is the major political reforms that the Spanish government forced on the colonies.  A large number of troops were required to maintain stability in recently conquered Granada, threatened by revolt from the maltreated moriscos (former Muslims who had converted to Christianity) and frequent naval raids from Muslim nations along the Mediterranean. 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